Style Guidelines for The International Journal of Ethical Leadership

This document provides details on typesetting and layout requirements pertaining to final manuscript preparation for The International Journal of Ethical Leadership.

Formatting Requirements

  • Do not include a title page or abstract. A title page, including the abstract, will be added to your paper by the editors.
  • Write your article in English (contact Managing Editor, Beth Trecasa, at if you are interested in submitting in a non-English language).
  • Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file (Word and RTF files are accepted).

IJEL Style Sheet

Style manuals:

The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. (CMS)

Case Western Reserve Editorial Style Guide:


Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed. (MW)


  • Prefixes are generally closed up (macroeconomic)
  • Common open compounds are not hyphenated as adjectives (mass scale production). Any compound modifier that is not traditionally hyphenated and would not be misread may be left unhyphenated in any position.
  • No hyphen after -ly
  • data is plural
  • “that” is generally used with restrictive clauses; “which” is used with nonrestrictive clauses


  • Names of degrees are lowercased when referred to generically (master’s of divinity, bachelor of arts)
  • When preceding a name, generic titles that describe a person’s role or occupation should be lowercased (German chancellor Angela Merkel)
  • Military titles are only capitalized when used as a part of a person’s name
  • Titles of armies, navies, air forces, fleets, regiments, battalions, companies, corps, and so forth are capitalized. Unofficial but well-known names, such as Green Berets, are also capitalized. Words such as “army” and “navy” are lowercased when standing alone, when used collectively in the plural, or when not part of an official title (United States Marine Corps; the marine corps; the US Marines; a marine)
  • Capitalize academic course titles and place in quotes unless it is preceded by a course number.
  • Academic subjects are not capitalized unless they form part of a department name or an official course name or are themselves proper nouns (e.g., English, Latin)
  • Small caps are not used in the footnotes
  • Lowercase “center” when making a general reference


  1. Use an em dash for asides only. Commas are fine if the phrase makes sense in the sentence.
  2. When the subtitle is preceded by an em dash, the word following it is not necessarily capitalized (Human Consciousness—a Love Affair)
  3. Use an en dash with college campuses (the University of Wisconsin–Madison)
  4. An abbreviated compound is treated as a single word, so a hyphen, not an en dash, is used in such phrases as “US-Canadian relations”
  5. Use an en dash with adjectival phrases including an open compound (human rights–related areas)
  6. No italics for emphasis unless it is absolutely necessary to understand the sentence
  7. Italics are used for films, tv series, podcasts, web series
  8. Enclose words as words or words that are being defined in quotation marks
  9. Songs, single episodes, etc. are enclosed in quotation marks
  10. Foreign terms found in MW are not italicized (e pluribus unum, ad hoc, sui generis).
  11. No period is necessary for degrees (PhD, MA, MFA)
  12. Commas are used to set off names in direct address or informal correspondence
  13. Commas are used to set off state names and dates
  14. No commas with descriptive titles (command module pilot Colonel Al Worden)
  15. Question marks go at the end of questions
  16. Use reverse quotation marks for abbreviated decades (’70s).


  1. In the sciences, “data” is always plural (unless it’s a “word as word” here). “Data set” is singular.
  2. Italicize the names of ships (USS Enterprise)
  3. Words with prefixes such as co-, anti-, non-, etc. usually do not require hyphens

Numbers and Dates

  1. Spell out numbers 1–100
  2. January 2, not January 2nd
  3. Numbered lists use parentheses. If the introductory material forms a grammatically complete sentence, a colon should precede the first parenthesis. (You are advised to pack the following items: (a) warm, sturdy outer clothing and enough underwear to last ten days; (b) two pairs of boots, two pairs of sneakers, and plenty of socks; and (c) three durable paperback novels.)


  1. British spelling is retained only in quoted material or titles. All other text should be in American English.