The article looks at the actual achievements of the U.S. Social Forum (USFF) in order to assess the differing positions of Walden Bello and Chico Whitaker, both representatives on the International Council of the World Social Forum (WFS). Bello argued that the Forum's open space methodology refuses to take a collective stand on any issues even on concerns as the war on Iraq. Meanwhile, Whitaker noted that the open space methodology left possible the opportunity for movements to independently build global coalitions that produced common manifestos.
"The Meaning of the US Social Forum: A Reply to Whitaker and Bello's Debate on the Open Space."
Societies Without Borders
Available at: https://scholarlycommons.law.case.edu/swb/vol3/iss1/13