Achieving global solutions to universal problems based on international rules continues to be the paramount challenge for international institutions as they seek to work in an entirely new era of advanced technology and increased interdependence. The year 1998 was a tumultuous one for international organizations. It was a year in which the United Nations and its affiliated agencies were pushed to the brink of bankruptcy in the face of U.S. continued nonpayment of over a billion dollars in arrears. In 1998, the new world order of Security Council cooperation stitched together in the aftermath of the 1991 Persian Gulf Conflict began to show signs of fraying in the context of Iraq's repeated refusal to permit U.N. inspections of suspected chemical and biological weapons production sites, Serbia's continued massacre of the Albanian people of Kosovo, and the decision of India and Pakistan to test nuclear weapons. The year was also one in which the international financial institutions had to scramble to implement novel approaches in an attempt to head off a rapidly spreading global financial crisis.
Place of Original Publication
33 International Lawyer 567 (1999)
Scharf, Michael P. and Shaw, Tamara A., "International Institutions" (1999). Faculty Publications. 850.