Currently there are two means of enforcing the international prohibition of chemical and biological weapons. First, the international community can induce compliance through imposition of sanctions, such as trade embargoes, freezing of assets and diplomatic isolation. Second, when sanctions fail, States can individually or collectively respond to the threat of chemical or biological weapons by using military force. After exploring the potential strengths and weaknesses of these approaches, this article examines the desirability of supplementing them with a third approach based on the criminal prosecution of persons responsible for the production, stockpiling, transfer, or use of chemical and biological weapons.


Chemical and Biological Weapons

Publication Date


Document Type


Place of Original Publication

Michigan Journal of International Law

Publication Information

20 Michigan Journal of International Law 477 (1999)


COinS Michael P. Scharf Faculty Bio